In this study, we aimed to estimate the relationship between some common bean traits using molecular markers and applying QTL mapping. We used a segregating population derived from a crossing between common bean cultivars, Jalo and Small White, in the Southern State of Minas Gerais. Of F2 plants, 190 F2:3 progenies were generated. Phenotypic measures related to the pod and leaf lengths and the 100-grain weight were used. DNA sampling and genotyping with SSR markers were performed in F2 plants and the pure parental. The 190 F2:3 progenies and six controls were evaluated through a 14 x 14-m triple lattice. Adjusted means of evaluations related to F2:3 were used in QTL mapping using Bayesian moving away method. Significant genetic differences were detected between parents and between progenies for all traits. The heritability estimates were 58.89, 79.39, and 50.37% for leaf length, 100-grain weight, and pod length, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations were significant and ranged from 0.44 to 0.74, which indicated an association between leaf length, 100-grain weight, and pod length traits. Significant genetic correlations between the three morpho-agronomic traits may be due to associations between QTL for different traits. The most promising candidate marker was the BMD17 for leaf length; BM143 for 100-grain weight; X57211 and PVBR118 for pod length. The most promising markers, which might be used for indirect selection for all three traits, are simultaneously X57211 and BM197.