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Study of PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS mutations in breast carcinomas among Chinese women in Qinghai

Author(s): Y.L. Wang, X. Dai, Y.D. Li, R.X. Cheng, B. Deng, X.X. Geng and H.J. Zhang

Phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase and RAS-activated signaling pathways play an important role in tumor formation. Abnormalities in relevant genes play essential roles in the occurrence and development of many human cancers. Studies of breast cancer have mainly focused on the women in western countries, but few studies have examined the frequency of mutations in PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS in Chinese breast cancer patients. In this study, we conducted sequence analysis of PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS and determined relationships with the occurrence of breast cancer in women from Qinghai. DNA was extracted from 25 cases of human breast cancer tissue samples. PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS mutation analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing. No mutations were found in PIK3CA, BRAF, and KRAS of adjacent tissues. However, PIK3CA mutations were observed in 32% (8) of the 25 breast cancer tissues examined, in which exon 9 accounted for 4% (1), exon 20 accounted for 28% (7), and no mutations were found in exon 1 of PIK3CA. Sequencing of exon 2 of KRAS suggested that 20% (5) of the 25 samples harbored a mutation and 16% (4) of BRAF harbored a mutation. Any mutation in these 3 oncogenes may induce the occurrence and development of breast cancer.