The aim of this study was to analyze the association between pulse pressure and a novel type of phospholipid with solubility similar to that of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), designated as AP, which was reported to be elevated during ischemia. In this cross-sectional study, 416 hypertensive patients and 252 controls aged between 35 and 70 years were enrolled consecutively. Fasting blood samples were extracted for assays of phospholipids and other biomarkers. Compared to controls, the hypertensive patients had higher levels of both LPA [odds ratio (OR) = 3.83] and AP (OR = 4.30). Changes in blood pressure did not affect the levels of LPA or AP. However AP, but not LPA, levels were significantly higher in patients with lower or higher pulse pressure (Pearson χ2 = 11.239, P = 0.001). For patients whose pulse pressure was ≤60 mmHg, plasma levels of AP were significantly negatively correlated with pulse pressure. However, this was not observed for LPA and nine other biomarkers, including lipoproteins. Plasma levels of AP increased in hypertensive patients with higher or lower pulse pressure. Thus, attention should be paid to the possibility of cerebral ischemia in hypertensive patients when they have abnormal pulse pressure, especially for those with relatively low pulse pressure.