This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Xinjiang children in western China. Data were obtained from the Chun-Miao Project, a community-based, cross-sectional study designed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of diabetes in children of the Chinese Uygur population in Xinjiang from February 2010 to May 2012. A total of 3644 children completed the survey and measurements of fasting glucose. Diabetes and IFG were defined using American Diabetes Association 2009 criteria. Overall, 0.7% of the 3644 Uygur children had IFG and 0.1% had diabetes. In the newborn to 8-year-old group, the prevalence of diabetes and IFG was 0.6 and 1.1%, respectively. In the 9-13-year-old group, the prevalence of diabetes and IFG was 0.1 and 0.7%, respectively. There was no evidence of IFG or diabetes in the 14-17-year-old group. Logistic regression analysis suggested that overweight and obesity were independent risk factors of diabetes in Uygur children of Xinjiang. The prevalence of diabetes and IFG in Uygur children was lower than that reported previously in children of other ethnicities in China.