In this study, a survey was conducted through questionnaire distribution and physical examinations were performed in 10,150 residents that were over 40 years old in Luzhou city. Respondents were selected by the multi-stage sampling method. The mean body mass index (BMI) of the sample population was 23.9 ± 3.3 kg/m2. Among men, BMI showed a negative relationship with increasing age (P < 0.05), whereas among women, it showed a positive relationship (P < 0.001). The rates of overweight and obesity increased with age and reached a peak between 60 to 70 years of age (P < 0.001). The rates of overweight and obesity varied with different working conditions, training situations, educational levels, marital status, and other factors (P < 0.05). Age, educational level, daily sitting time, and family history of diabetes were factors that influenced the prevalence of overweight and obesity through multivariate logistic regression analysis (P < 0.05).