Our study aimed to investigate the association between multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene polymorphisms and the response to imatinib (IM) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). An electronic databases in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP were searched using combinations of keywords relating to MDR1 polymorphisms and the response to IM in CML. Studies retrieved from database searches were screened using stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software was utilized for all statistical analyses. In total, 186 studies were initially retrieved, and 10 studies, involving 987 CML patients, were eventually included in this meta-analysis. Results of our study revealed no significant associations between MDR1 rs1045642, rs1128503, and rs2032582 polymorphisms and major molecular response and complete molecular response in CML patients. Significant differences were observed in the genotype frequencies of MDR1 rs1128503 under homozygous, heterozygous, and recessive models, between CML patients sensitive and resistant to IM. A significant difference in genotype frequencies of MDR1 rs2032582 was also observed under allele, homozygous, heterozygous, and recessive models between CML patients sensitive and resistant to IM. In conclusion, based on our meta-analysis, the MDR1 polymorphisms, rs1045642, rs1128503, and rs2032582, are not directly correlated with the curative effect of IM treatment of CML patients.