The lower northern part of Thailand contains various genetically diverse ethnic populations. The sequences of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region were studied in three ethnic populations inhabiting Phitsanulok Province. One hundred and nine nucleotide sequences - 53, 29, and 27 from Hmongs (Hill tribe), Lao Songs, and Thai-Siams, respectively - were collected. The haplotypes were generated from 1130 nucleotides of the entire control region. Eighty-six haplotypes were found in the three ethnic populations, and no shared haplotypes were found between populations. Point heteroplasmy was noted at position 311 (C→Y). Haplotypes with ACAC-insertion at position 512 were observed in immigrant individuals from the Lao Song population. The Thai-Siam population showed higher genetic diversity than the other populations. The Hmong and Lao Song populations showed less genetic diversity than those living in their original area. The neutrality testing suggested that the result might be influenced by genetic drift.