Knowledge about the cytology and reproductive behavior of a species is indispensable for hybridization programs. This is especially true for species belonging to the genus Paspalum, among which apomixis and a wide range of ploidy levels are frequently found. Paspalum conspersum Schrad. is a robust and warm-season perennial bunchgrass native to South America. Previous studies have indicated that both tetraploid and hexaploid races exist in this species; however, only information related to tetraploids has been applied to another taxon. In this study, a cytological investigation in two Brazilian accessions collected in different regions revealed tetraploidy in the accession BRA-012823 (2n = 4x = 40), with chromosome pairing in bivalents and normal meiosis and tetrad formation, and pentaploidy (2n = 5x = 50) in the accession BRA-022748, which presented total asynapsis. In this latter accession, 50 univalents could be scored at diakinesis.