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MC1R, KIT, IGF2, and NR6A1 as markers for genetic differentiation in Thai native, wild boars, and Duroc and Chinese Meishan pigs

Author(s): P. Klomtong, K. Chaweewan, Y. Phasuk and M. Duangjinda

Mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene and v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) gene have been shown to affect coat color patterns in pigs. Additional functional marker genes, such as insulin like growth factor-2 (IGF2) and orphan nuclear receptor, germ cell nuclear factor (NR6A1), have been described for variations in factors such as fat deposition, litter size, and vertebra number in pigs. In this study, we investigated 129 pigs representing 4 breeds: Thai indigenous, classified into black (similar to Raad or Ka done pig) and black and white (similar to the Hailum and Kwai pig) coat color types; wild boar; Duroc; and Chinese Meishan. Mutations of MC1R, KIT, IGF2, and NR6A1 were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The genotypes variation in MC1R and KIT genes could be used to differentiate four groups of coat color: solid black, black and white, red, and wild type. For IGF2, the GG genotype was present in wild boar only; for NR6A1 the TT genotype was found only in Duroc pigs. We identified novel 14-bp deletions in KIT that were associated with black and white coat color in Thai indigenous pigs. Insights into variations in genes presented in this study will be useful in future developmental breeding programs for the Thai native pig.