Soybean aphid (SA: Aphis glycines Matsumura) is one of the most serious pests of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] worldwide. A single dominant gene was found to control SA resistance in soybean line P746, which exhibits antibiosis resistance. This study aimed to define the location of the SA resistance gene in P746. A F2:3 mapping population, including 312 individuals, was created based on the cross of P746 and ‘Dongnong 47’. Combined with bulked segregant analysis, all of the 1015 simple sequence repeats (SSR) from the soybean consensus map were used to locate the tentative genomic region of the SA resistance gene in P746. The effort resulted in the mapping of R_P746, the SA resistance gene in P746, and was flanked on either side by Satt334 and Satt335 on chromosome 13. By chromosome walking with SSRs from BARCSOYSSR_1.0, R_P746 was mapped between BARCSOYSSR_13_1278 and BARCSOYSSR_13_1363, with distances of 4.2 and 2.6 cM, respectively. The results indicate that R_P746 might be different to the SA resistance genes previously reported. The markers that are closely linked to R_P746 are expected to be useful for marker assisted selection in future soybean aphid resistance breeding programs.