The association between the human 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (hOGG1) gene Ser326Cys polymorphism (rs1052133) and gastric cancer has been widely evaluated, yet a definitive answer to whether this association exists is lacking. We first conducted a case-control study to assess this association in a large Han Chinese population, and then performed a meta-analysis to further address this issue. This case-control study involved 448 patients clinically diagnosed with gastric cancer and 372 cancer-free control individuals from China. Genotyping was conducted using the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Meta-analysis was performed by the STATA software. Data and study quality were assessed in duplicate.