Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component that has been associated with several genetic loci. Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine, which is involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses, and in the pathogenesis of various diseases including T1D. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is known to be an insulin-responsive glucose transporter and has been associated with various diseases, including diabetes mellitus. We investigated the association of the polymorphisms rs187238 (IL-18) and rs5435 (GLUT4) in a case-control study in Euro-Brazilians with T1D (N = 136) and healthy subjects (N = 144). Real-time PCR with TaqMan® fluorescent probes were applied for genotyping. All polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The minor allele frequencies for the G-allele (rs187238; IL-18) in healthy and T1D groups were 28.5% [95%CI = 23-34%] vs 31.6% [95%CI = 26-37%], P = 0.416, and for the T-allele (rs5435, GLUT4) were 33% [95%CI = 28-39] vs 27% [95%CI = 23-33%], P = 0.167, respectively. Genotype comparisons for both polymorphisms showed no significant differences (P > 0.05). The polymorphisms rs187238 and rs5435 were not associated with T1D in the studied population. The minor allele frequencies for both polymorphisms were similar to those of other Caucasian populations.