The fragmentation of the original vegetation of the Cerrado biome, caused by the expansion of agricultural areas, mainly in central-west Brazil, calls for an assessment of the native population of this vegetation, especially of the species of interest for domestication and sustainable use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity of 140 gabiroba mother plants (Campomanesia spp) and their progenies from 17 locations in Goiás. The morphological characteristics of the mother plants were evaluated, and the leaflets were collected for molecular analysis using 12 random amplified polymorphic DNA primers. The seed progenies of these matrices were transplanted to the field and morphologically evaluated. Distance matrices of the morphological data of the mother plants and progenies as well as the molecular data of the mother plants were constructed, and groups were formed using the Tocher method and the unweighted pair-group method based on arithmetic averages. The polymorphism level in the matrix was 90.44%. The greatest molecular distance (0.66) was observed between mother plants from Santa Rita do Araguaia and Alexânia. By the Tocher method, 10, 13, and 17 groups were formed. The morphological evaluation of the mother plants and progenies as well as the molecular analysis of the mother plants showed genetic diversity. Significant genetic variability was detected in the progenies of the gabiroba base collection planted in Campus Jataí, Goiás.