Sickle cell anemia is an affection that causes chronic inflammation, with consequences for vaso-occlusion, oxidative stress and cytokine production. Genetic polymorphisms in markers involved in this process can modulate the inflammatory response, including polymorphisms -308G/A of TNFA (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and -509C/T of TGFB1 (transforming growth factor beta 1), reported to increase TNF-α and TGF-β1 production, respectively. Changes in the cytokine balance are important risk factors for clinical events; consequently, we examined the frequencies of these polymorphisms in 240 Brazilian sickle cell anemia patients from southeast Brazil. PCR-RFLP was used to detect these polymorphisms. The -509C/T (TGFB1) polymorphism was more frequent than -308G/A (TNFA), with allelic frequency of 0.3 for the mutant allele T (TGFB) agaist 0.1 for the mutant allele A (TNFA). These allelic frequencies are similar to those knownfrom populations with ethnicity similar to the Brazilian population.Inheritance of these polymorphisms does not seem to be associated with that of the Hb S mutation; however, this information could be useful inanalyses of specific clinical characteristics of sickle cell anemia.