In this study, we examined the effects of Tripterygium wilfordii glycosides (TWGs) on Th17 and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in an immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) rat model. IgAN model rats were randomly divided into the model group, TWG treatment group, and prednisone group. Normal rats were included as controls. There were 6 rats in each group. The urine protein levels and the number of red blood cells in urine were analyzed at 24 h. IgA deposition in renal tissue was detected by fluorescence microscopy. The concentration of interleukin-17 in serum was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the number of Tregs in blood was analyzed by flow cytometry. TWGs and prednisone significantly reduced urine protein levels and urine red blood cells at 24 h in IgAN model rats (P T. wilfordii glycosides and prednisone significantly decreased the serum IL-17 level in an IgAN rat model and increased the number of Tregs in the blood (P 0.05). In conclusion, TWGs had therapeutic effects on IgAN model rats and may regulate the immune balance of Th17 and Tregs.