The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of diabetes mellitus patients with Burkholderia pseudomallei septicemia and evaluate strategies of diagnosis and treatment. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of 39 diabetes mellitus patients with B. pseudomallei septicemia were retrospectively analyzed. Farmers, fishermen and workers were found to be high-risk groups. The clinical manifestations of patients were diverse without specific features, but mainly presented manifestations of acute fulminant septicemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, and abscesses in tissues or/and organs. Patients showed high mortality and misdiagnosis rates and were prone to relapses and long treatment duration as there are currently few effective and sensitive antibiotics for the disease. Consequently, the cost of treatment for the disease was high. Early diagnosis, a prolonged course of heavy doses of sensitive intravenous antibiotics, drainage of abscesses, intensive insulin therapy, and supportive treatment are the keys for successful management of the disease. Regular follow-ups combined with long-term blood glucose control can help reduce the disease recurrence.