Silent information regulator 2 (SIRT2), a member of the Sirtuin family of class III nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylases, plays an important role in senescence, metabolism, and apoptosis. This study was conducted to detect potential polymorphisms of the bovine SIRT2 gene and explore their relationships with meat quality and body measurement traits (BMTs) in Qinchuan cattle. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (A7445G, C7711T, G17937A, and G20937A) in the fourth intron, fourth exon, ninth exon, and twelfth exon of the SIRT2 gene, respectively, were identified according to the sequencing results of 520 individuals of a Qinchuan cattle population. The genotypic distributions of both A7445G and G20937A were in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < 0.05), whereas the other two mutations were not (0.05 < P < 0.01), based on the c2 test. Association analysis indicated that the four loci were significantly correlated with several BMTs and meat quality traits. When in combination, the H1H1 (AA-CC-GG-CC) diplotypes showed better BMT and meat quality traits than those by other combinations. Collectively, the results show that SIRT2 is involved in the regulation of the growth and meat quality of cattle, suggesting that the SIRT2 gene may be a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in the development of future breeding programs for Qinchuan cattle.