Fermented bamboo shoots are popular traditional food items of various ethnic groups of the northeastern India, especially in Manipur State. Dendrocalamus hamiltonii is an economically important bamboo species used to produce fermented bamboo shoots. We studied genetic variability of this bamboo species in Chandel and Imphal-East (commercial production districts), using AFLP molecular markers. Each of the selected primers detected polymorphisms and 1614 (95.8%) were found to be polymorphic. Cluster analysis based on Dice similarity coefficients using UPGMA differentiated the populations into two major groups. Principal coordinate analysis based on the AFLP data clearly separated the populations according to their genetic diversity and antioxidant activity. Four primers were tested through multiple regression analysis to identify marker-trait association between AFLP data and biochemical attributes, i.e., antioxidant activity and total cyanide content. The 273 bp generated by EcoRI-AAG(Joe)/MseI-CTC showed high positive correlation with antioxidant activity (r = 0.729, P < 0.01). The 396 bp generated by EcoRI-AAC(Ned)/MseI-CTG were negatively correlated with cyanide content (r = -0.694, P < 0.01). Thus, we found association of DNA markers with antioxidant activities and total cyanidecontent. These results could be of use for the identification of superior genotypes with desirable traits.