Hyptis pectinata, popularly known as ‘sambacaitá’ or ‘canudinho’, is a medicinal and aromatic species widely used in the Brazilian Northeast. In Sergipe, the excessive extraction of natural resources may reduce the genetic variability of native plants. Thus, molecular markers have frequently been applied to the characterization of genetic diversity as the basis for germplasm conservation and breeding programs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic diversity of H. pectinata plants collected in different municipalities of the State of Sergipe using ISSR molecular markers. Thirty-four primers were tested, nine of which were selected for providing reproducible and analyzable amplification products, resulting in 67 polymorphic bands. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.32 to 0.45, with a mean of 0.39. Polymorphism information content was of 0.49, which classifies the markers as moderately informative. A dendrogram was constructed using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, forming three clusters: Cluster I (79 plants); Cluster II (4 plants); and Cluster III (2 plants). Jaccard’s similarity coefficients ranged from 0.06 to 0.98. The plants SAM-117 and SAM-119 presented greater similarity. Conversely, SAM-107 and SAM-171 were the most genetically distant. In general, H. pectinata plants collected in the State of Sergipe presented low to moderate genetic diversity.