All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

A new tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for genotyping bovine kappa-casein polymorphisms

Author(s): P.A.S. Fonseca, I.C. Rosse, M. DeMiranda, M.A. Machado,R.S. Verneque, M.G.C.D. Peixoto and M.R.S. Carvalho

Kappa-casein (κ-casein) is one of the most abundant milk proteins. Its main function is to avoid the aggregation of casein micelles, keeping them, and therefore calcium phosphate, in pockets in solution. In bovines, a κ-casein functional polymorphism has been associated with fat, calcium, and protein milk contents and faster curd contraction in cheese production. Quicker curd contraction reduces the loss of milk solids, enhancing cheese yield. This polymorphism induces a double amino acid substitution (Thr136Ile and Ala148Asp). The polymorphism is normally detected by PCR-RFLP, which is a laborious method. An interesting methodological alternative is the tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR (tetra-primer ARMS-PCR). A tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for the detection of this κ-casein polymorphism has been described. However, specificity was not achieved, probably due to problems with primer design. We developed a new tetra-primer ARMS-PCR for the detection of the κ-casein polymorphism. This new method was validated in a double-blind test, by comparison with the results obtained for 50 Guzerá bulls formerly genotyped by PCR-RFLP. This new method achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity.