We optimized RAPD techniques by increasing the length of RAPD primers and performing a strict screening of PCR annealing temperature to distinguish 60 sweet orange cultivars from the Research Institute of Pomology at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences. A new approach called cultivar identification diagram (CID) was used to improve the efficiency of RAPD markers for cultivar identification. Thirteen effective primers were first screened from 54 RAPD arbitrary 11-mer primers based on their amplification products and amplified polymorphic bands; they were then used for PCR amplification of all 60 cultivars. All cultivars were manually and completely separated by the polymorphic bands appearing in DNA fingerprints from 13 primers; a CID of the 60 sweet orange cultivars was then constructed. This CID separated all the cultivars from each other, based on the polymorphic bands; the corresponding primers were marked in the correct positions on the sweet orange CID. The CID strategy facilitates the identification of fruit cultivars with DNA markers. This CID of sweet orange cultivarswill be very useful for the protection of cultivar rights and for early identification of seedlings in the nursery industry.